History of sexual orientation

Duration: 12min 29sec Views: 1188 Submitted: 26.07.2020
Category: Creampie
Issues of sexuality and gender have been recently politicized. However, modern notions of sexuality and gender identity would be completely foreign to the peoples of human history. The idea of heterosexuality itself was only invented in the late nineteenth century by the Hungarian writer Karl Maria Kertbeny. Asexuality had previously been discussed as an unknown, X variable in Dr.

Homosexuality

Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity Throughout History

Today, as scientists begin to treat sexual orientation as a demographic variable like race and ethnicity, it is important to critically examine and clarify our conceptualizations of sexual orientation as well as critically examine measures used to operationally identifying the sexual orientation of research subjects. There is much evidence that researchers are often confused as to what they are studying when they assess sexual orientations in their research. Several literature reviews have found that researchers' conceptual definitions of these populations are rarely included in reports of their research and, when they are included, they often differ theoretically. Further, the methods used to measure sexual orientations in these studies do not always correspond with the most common conceptualizations of sexual orientation Shively, et al.

Background

Sexual orientation is an enduring pattern of romantic or sexual attraction or a combination of these to persons of the opposite sex or gender , the same sex or gender, or to both sexes or more than one gender. These attractions are generally subsumed under heterosexuality , homosexuality , and bisexuality , [1] [2] [3] while asexuality the lack of sexual attraction to others is sometimes identified as the fourth category. These categories are aspects of the more nuanced nature of sexual identity and terminology. Androphilia describes sexual attraction to masculinity ; gynephilia describes the sexual attraction to femininity. Scientists do not know the exact cause of sexual orientation, but they theorize that it is caused by a complex interplay of genetic , hormonal , and environmental influences.
Since the history of cultural understandings of same-sex attraction is relevant to the philosophical issues raised by those understandings, it is necessary to review briefly some of the social history of homosexuality. Arising out of this history, at least in the West, is the idea of natural law and some interpretations of that law as forbidding homosexual sex. References to natural law still play an important role in contemporary debates about homosexuality in religion, politics, and even courtrooms.